Thomas “Blind Tom” Wiggins: African-American Slave Piano Prodigy

Thomas “Blind Tom” Wiggins

 

Thomas “Blind Tom” Wiggins (May 25, 1849 – June 14, 1908, age 59) was an African American musical prodigy on the piano. He had numerous original compositions published and had a lengthy and largely successful performing career throughout the United States. During the 19th century, he was one of the best-known American performing pianists. Although he lived and died before autism was described, he is now regarded as an autistic savant.

Wiggins was born on the Wiley Edward Jones Plantation in Harris County, Georgia. Blind at birth, he was sold in 1850 along with his enslaved parents, Charity and Domingo “Mingo” Wiggins, to a Columbus, Georgia lawyer, General James Neil Bethune.[1] Bethune was “almost the pioneer free trader” in the United States and “the first [newspaper] editor in the south to openly advocate secession“.[2] General Bethune renamed the child Thomas Greene Bethune or Thomas Wiggins Bethune (according to different sources).

Because Tom was blind, he could not perform work normally demanded of slaves, and was left to play and explore the Bethune plantation. At an early age, he showed an interest in the piano after hearing the instrument played by Bethune’s daughters. By age four he reportedly had acquired some piano skills by ear, and gained access to the piano. By age five Tom reportedly had composed his first tune, The Rain Storm,after a torrential downpour on a tin roof.[3] With his skills recognized by General Bethune, Tom was permitted to live in a room attached to the family house, equipped with a piano. Neighbor Otto Spahr, reminiscing about Tom in the Atlanta Constitution in 1908 (as reproduced in The Ballad of Blind Tom, by Deirdre O’Connell), observed: “Tom seemed to have but two motives in life: the gratification of his appetite and his passion for music. I don’t think I exaggerate when I state that he made the piano go for twelve hours out of twenty-four.”[4]

As a child, Tom began to echo the sounds around him, repeating accurately the crow of a rooster or the singing of a bird. If he was left alone in the cabin, Tom was known to begin beating on pots and pans or dragging chairs across the floor in an attempt to make any kind of noise. By the age of four, Tom was able to repeat conversations up to ten minutes in length but was barely able to adequately communicate his own needs, resorting to grunts and gestures.

Bethune hired out “Blind Tom” from the age of eight years to concert promoter Perry Oliver, who toured him extensively in the US, performing as often as four times a day and earning Oliver and Bethune up to $100,000 a year, an enormous sum for the time,[5] “equivalent to $1.5 million/year [in 2004], making Blind Tom undoubtedly the nineteenth century’s most highly compensated pianist”.[6] General Bethune’s family eventually made a fortune estimated at $750,000 at the hands of Blind Tom.[7] Oliver marketed Tom as a “Barnum-style freak” advertising the transformation from animal to artist. In the media, Tom was frequently compared to a bear, baboon, or mastiff.

Bethune hired professional musicians to play for Tom, who could faithfully reproduce their performances, often after a single listening. Eventually he learned a reported 7,000 pieces of music, including hymns, popular songs, waltzes, and classical repertoire.

There are conflicting historical accounts of Blind Tom’s first public performance, some indicating he was as young as three. One account from 1857 indicates that he had been performing publicly for several years. Newspaper reviews and audience reactions were favorable, prompting General Bethune to undertake a concert tour with Tom around their home state of Georgia. Tom later toured the South with Bethune or accompanied by hired managers, though their travels and bookings were sometimes hampered by the North-South hostilities which were drawing the nation towards Civil War. In 1860, Blind Tom performed at the White House before President James Buchanan; he was the first African-American to give a command performance at the White House. Mark Twain attended many of Blind Tom’s performances over several decades and chronicled the proceedings.

On- and off-stage, Tom often referred to himself in the third person (e.g., “Tom is pleased to meet you”). His piano recitals were augmented by other talents, including uncanny voice mimicry of public figures and nature sounds. He also displayed a hyperactive physicality both onstage and off. A letter written in 1862 by a soldier in North Carolina described some of Tom’s eccentric capabilities: “One of his most remarkable feats was the performance of three pieces of music at once. He played ‘Fisher’s Hornpipe’ with one hand and ‘Yankee Doodle‘ with the other and sang ‘Dixie‘ all at once. He also played a piece with his back to the piano and his hands inverted.” At concerts, skepticsattempted to confirm if Tom’s performance replications were mere trickery; their challenge took the form of having Tom hear and repeat two new, uncirculated compositions. Tom did so perfectly. The “audience challenge” eventually became a regular feature of his concerts.

In 1866, at age 16, Tom was taken on a European concert tour by General Bethune, who collected testimonials about Tom’s natural talents from composer-pianist Ignaz Moscheles and pianist-conductor Charles Hallé. These were printed in a booklet, “The Marvelous Musical Prodigy Blind Tom,” and used to bolster Tom’s international reputation.

In 1875, General Bethune transferred management of Blind Tom’s professional affairs to his son John Bethune, who accompanied Tom on tour around the U.S. for the next eight years. Beginning in 1875, John brought Blind Tom to New York each summer. While living with John in a boarding house on the Lower East Side, Tom added to his repertoire under the tutelage of Joseph Poznanski, who also transcribed new compositions by Tom for publication. Many of these were, at Tom’s insistence, published under such pseudonyms as Professor W.F. Raymond, J.C. Beckel, C.T. Messengale, and Francois Sexalise.

Tom’s piano-playing behavior, both during practice and performance, was eccentric. “We had two pianos in one room,” Poznanski told the Washington Post in 1886 (as recounted in O’Connell’s biography). “I would play for him and he would get up, walk around, stand on one foot, pull his hair, knock his head against the wall, then sit down and play a very good imitiation of what I had played with additions to it. His memory was something prodigious. He never forgot anything.” This led some critics to dismiss Tom as a novelty act, a “human parrot.” Novelist Willa Cather, writing in the Nebraska State Journal, called Tom “a human phonograph, a sort of animated memory, with sound producing power.”[4]

John Steinbeck has compared the main character in his short story, “Johnny Bear” to Blind Tom.

In 1882, John Bethune married his landlady, Eliza Stutzbach, who had demonstrated a knack for mollifying Tom’s sometimes volatile temperament. However, shortly after their marriage, John Bethune embarked on an extended tour of the U.S. with Tom, in effect abandoning Eliza. When Bethune returned home eight months later, his wife filed for divorce. The couple split up—John took Tom—but a bitter legal squabble ensued, with Eliza hounding John for financial support, a claim that the courts usually adjudicated in John’s favor. After John Bethune died in a railway accident in 1884, Tom was returned—over Eliza’s objections—to the care of General Bethune (now living in Virginia). Eliza sued General Bethune for ownership, with Tom’s elderly mother Charity enjoined by Eliza’s attorney as a party in the plaintiff’s suit. After a protracted custody battle in several courts, in August 1887 Tom was awarded to Eliza, who moved Tom back to New York. Charity accompanied them with the understanding that she would benefit financially from Tom’s earnings. However, after it became apparent that Eliza did not intend to honor any financial obligations to Charity, Tom’s mother returned to Georgia.

Tom continued performing and touring for a number of years under the management of Eliza and her attorney (and later husband) Albrecht Lerche. Tom was on tour in western Pennsylvania in May 1889 on the day of the Johnstown Flood, and rumor spread that he was among the casualties. Despite his continued appearances on the U.S. concert circuit, the rumor persisted for years, with some observers expressing skepticism that the Blind Tom who appeared in concert after 1889 was the “real Blind Tom.”

In this phase of his career, Tom usually introduced himself onstage in the third person, imitating the pronouncements of his various managers from years past. He talked about his mental state with a characteristic lack of self-awareness. He had been diagnosed as non compos mentis by a doctor, and in his foggy netherworld the phrase was a matter of personal pride. Willa Cather described the poignance of one such concert: “It was a strange sight to see him walk out on stage with his own lips—another man’s words—introduce himself and talk quietly about his own idiocy. There was insanity, a grotesque horribleness about it that was interestingly unpleasant. One laughs at the man’s queer actions, and yet, after all, the sight is not laughable. It brings us too near to the things that we sane people do not like to think of.”

Tom was still traveling, and presumably still performing, in 1894. On July 5 of that year, he arrived in Grand Junction, CO on his way eastward from California. The trainmen at that place were on strike against the railroads as part of the Pullman Strike, and Tom was stuck in town until July 9, when he continued eastward via the Colorado Midland Railroad.[8]

After being dogged by incessant legal challenges to her custodianship of Tom, Eliza took Tom off the concert circuit in the mid-1890s.

Tom spent the next ten years as a ward of Eliza and her husband, who divided their time between New York City and New Jersey’s Navesink Highlands. In 1903 Eliza arranged for Tom to appear on the popular vaudeville circuit, beginning with Brooklyn’s Orpheum Theater. He spent almost a year performing in vaudeville, before his health began to deteriorate. It is believed he suffered a stroke (described in some reports as “partial paralysis”) in December 1904, which ended his public performing career.

After the death of her husband, Eliza relocated to Hoboken, New Jersey, with Tom.[9] They kept out of public view, though neighbors could hear Tom’s piano playing at all hours of the day and night. Tom suffered a major stroke in April 1908, and died the following June. He was buried in the Cemetery of the Evergreens in Brooklyn, New York.

The people of Columbus, Georgia, raised a commemorative headstone for him in 1976. He was the subject of a play titled HUSH: Composing Blind Tom Wiggins, by Robert Earl Price, which was performed on the Atlanta stage with Del Hamilton as director.

Between 1970 and 2000, Dr. Geneva Handy Southall wrote a three-volume thesis titled Blind Tom: The Black Pianist Composer; Continuously Enslaved; it was published by Scarecrow Press in 2002.

In 1981 he was the subject of a film, “Blind Tom: The Story of Thomas Bethune” directed by Mark W. Travis.

In 1999 John Davis recorded an album of Tom’s original compositions on a CD entitled John Davis Plays Blind Tom. The CD package included essays by Amiri Baraka, Ricky Jay and Oliver Sacks.

In 2006, Reagan Grimsley published an article about preserving the sheet music of Blind Tom for future Generations. Titled “Discovering “Blind” Tom Wiggins: Creating Digital Access to Original Sheet Music at the Columbus State University Archives” it appeared in Music Reference Quarterly.

A full-length biography, ‘The Ballad of Blind Tom’, by Deirdre O’Connell was published by Overlook Press in 2009.[4]

Andre T. Regan’s 2013 documentary, The Last Legal Slave in America, documents the life and times of Blind Tom.

The Elton John song, “The Ballad of Blind Tom”, from his 2013 album “The Diving Board“, is about Blind Tom.

Blind Tom Wiggins is the subject of a novel, “The Song of the Shank,” (2014) by Jeffrey Reynard Allen.[11]

Source: Wikipedia

Queen Calafia: The Spirit of California

queen calafia

Calafia was a fictional warrior queen who ruled over a kingdom of Black women living on the mythical Island of California. The character of Queen Calafia was penned by Spanish writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo who first introduced her in his popular novel entitled Las sergas de Esplandián (The Adventures of Esplandián), written around 1500.[1]

In the novel, Calafia is a pagan who is convinced to raise an army of women warriors and sail away from California with a large flock of trained griffins so that she can join a Moslem battle against Christians who are defending Constantinople. In the siege, the griffins harm enemy and friendly forces, so they are withdrawn. Calafia and her ally Radiaro fight in single combat against the Christian leaders, a king and his son the knight Esplandián. Calafia is bested and taken prisoner, and she converts to Christianity. She marries a cousin of Esplandián and returns with her army to California for further adventures.[2]

The name of Calafia was likely formed from the Arabic word khalifa (religious state leader) which is known as caliph in English and califa in Spanish. Similarly, the name of Calafia’s monarchy, California, likely originated from the same root, fabricated by the author to remind the 16th century Spanish reader of the reconquista, a centuries-long fight between Christians and Moslems which had recently concluded in Spain. The character of Calafia is used by de Montalvo to portray the superiority of chivalry in which the attractive virgin queen is conquered, converted to Christian beliefs and married off. The book was very popular for many decades—Hernán Cortés read it—and it was selected by author Miguel de Cervantes as the first of many harmful books to be burnt by characters in his famous novel Don Quixote.[2]

Calafia, also called Califia, has been depicted as the Spirit of California, and has been the subject of modern-day sculpture, paintings, stories and films; she often figures in the myth of California’s origin, symbolizing an untamed and bountiful land prior to European settlement.[3]

Source: sitfu.com

The Kru People: The Africans Who Vigilantly Refused to Be Captured into Slavery

From Black Girl Long Hair

August 28, 2015

kru people

The Kru people are indigenous to Liberia and the Ivory Coast. Kru were most known for seafaring and their strong resistance to capture by European enslavers in the Transatlantic slave trade. The Kru would fight vehemently and even take their own lives before surrendering to enslavement. Because of their tenacity, they were labeled as difficult and less valuable in the slave trade.

Apart from their strength in resistance, the Kru were known for their ability to effortlessly navigate the seas. Their skills in both canoeing and surfing the strong ocean currents brought upon much recognition which later afforded them work on British merchant and warships in the 1700s. Currently, the Kru account for 7% of the Liberian population.

kru women

kru people monroviaKru_Woman

Are you familiar with the Kru people?

The Story of Enslaved Africans In Canada

Canada’s secret slave-owning past revealed

THE STORY OF CANADIAN SLAVES — whose lives were as unjust and inhumane as those in the south — has largely been ignored. Slavery existed in Canada for 200 years and was officially abolished 30 years before the Emancipation Proclamation order was issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. | Historians believe there was an estimated 4,000 Slaves who were forcibly brought to Canada, either directly as property, or shipped through the trans-Atlantic Slave trade from other British colonies.:

You’ve heard this story before, a group of slaves escape for freedom in the middle of the night. But, here’s the twist: These slaves weren’t running towards Canada, they were running away from it.

They were fleeing from Canadian slave owners and headed for freedom in Detroit.

The brutal depiction of life for U.S. slaves is back in the spotlight thanks to the Oscar-nominated film 12 Years a Slave. While American slavery is having its moment in Hollywood, the story of Canadian slaves — whose lives were as unjust and inhumane as those in the south — has largely been ignored.

“We tend to think of it as ‘not in my backyard’ myth about slavery,” says Delorean Kilen, project coordinator at the Ontario Black History Society. “People don’t remember that slavery existed here because we’ve been ‘slave-free’ longer than the U.S.”

Slavery existed in Canada for 200 years and was officially abolished 30 years before the Emancipation Proclamation order was issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln.

Historians believe there was an estimated 4,000 slaves who were forcibly brought to Canada, either directly as property, or shipped through the trans-Atlantic slave trade from other British colonies.

In 1793, Upper Canada outlawed importing slaves and the practice was officially abolished in 1833 alongside the rest of the British Empire.

“It’s something that people don’t want to talk about and not comfortable talking about,” says Natasha Henry, a historian and educator. “Slavery was used as a tool for both [British and Canadian] colonies. “By ignoring that we’re not portraying a complete history of Canada.”

Rosemary Sadlier is one of many Canadians whose roots reach back to pre-Confederation. Her mother’s family can be traced to 1840 while her father’s ancestors arrived in New Brunswick in 1793.

“Everyone assumes that everyone who is black is a recent immigrant, but there are thousands of black Canadians who have been here since the founding of the country,” says Sadlier, an author and recipient of the Order of Ontario.

“In my younger years I didn’t come away with a real sense of my family’s historic contributions to this country and I think there’s a way that we are made to feel to various measures that we aren’t the same, we haven’t paid our dues, we’re visitors in someone else’s country,” she says.

“When you have something like black history it changes all of those stereotypes because you can’t be an unwelcomed visitor in a country that’s your own.”

Charmaine Nelson, an art historian and professor at McGill University, believes a heavy dose of corrective action is needed to educate people who see slavery as only an American experience.

“We don’t ever want to take credit for slavery in Canada so we have to keep it out there in the tropics or the U.S.,” she says.

Photos and portraits that depict slavery in Canada are not easily found or publicized, which adds to the difficulty Nelson and other educators have when talking and teaching the public about this stain on our nation’s history.

A painting originally called Portrait of Negro Slave is one of the few items that gives a face to slavery in Canada. The name of the portrait was controversially changed to Portrait of a Haitian Woman.

“The renaming in effect expels slavery from Montreal and Quebec, rendering it only a troubling history of tropical colonies like Haiti and not one of immediate concern to Canadians.”

Here are some common myths about slavery in Canada debunked.

Slavery never existed in Canada, right? 
 


FACT: Many Canadians are under the assumption that slavery never existed in Canada (or not at the same levels found in the U.S.), which is false. The first recorded slave to arrive in Canada was a six-year-old boy named Olivier le Jeune from Madagascar in 1628. Most slaves were imported from other British colonies and the Americas.

Was Canada the first country to abolish slavery before other parts of the world followed suit?

FACT: Although slavery in Canada was officially abolished in 1833 politicians enacted legislation in 1793 that would set limitations on slavery in the country. The bill meant slaves would secure their freedom at 25 if born a slave, which was no help to most since the average lifespan of a slave was 20 to 25 years.

Weren’t all black slaves who escaped to Canada from the U.S. afforded all the civil liberties enjoyed by other European Canadians?

FACT: Despite the warm and fuzzy images and scenes displayed in most current-day slave narratives, black slaves who escaped to Canada faced discrimination, violence and segregation. Unlike racist laws that were found in the U.S. (think: Jim Crow), Canada had largely unwritten racist codes, which many could argue made it more difficult for black people in Canada.

Slaves who escaped north lived out the rest of their lives in Canada

FACT: Some former slaves left Canada for the U.S. once slavery was abolished in America to escape difficulties in Canada and for chances at upward mobility afforded to them by moving to cities with higher black populations. Entire generations of black Canadians were completely lost to Canadian history by moving to the U.S.